Despite defeating the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi in May 1643, France was unable to mount a serious campaign in Europe as military exhaustion had broken out throughout Europe. In October 1635, Bernard of Weimar and his army were taken into French service. Thirty Years’ War (1618–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. 30 seconds . Gustavus’ councillor Oxenstierna replaced him in the field in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen (September 5–6, 1634). Thirty Years War: The Franco-Swedish Period France entered openly into the war in 1635. The Thirty Years' War was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Germany.It originated in the commingling of politics and religion that was common in Europe at the time. However, Sweden was too poor to continue the campaign against Ferdinand by herself. The assault on Trier was designed to trigger war between France and the Holy Roman Empire. The end of the war was not brought about by one treaty, but instead by a group of treaties, … The new phase saw the German war expanded into an international conflict. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 in. THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION – FRANCE, Prokhorovka – the unknown clash of the Great Patriotic War. 10th - 11th grade. Spain appeared to outsiders to be collapsing from within. A determinative battle was Second Breitenfeld (November 2, 1642) where Torstensson destroyed an Imperial army and Ferdinand III’s hope to avoid major concessions to Sweden in the final settlement. In the autumn of 1636 they were summoned to Regensburg by Ferdinand. This split gave hope to Vienna and Madrid that they could still win by dividing their enemies. Besides, France and Spain had fought an undeclared but bitter frontier war for years in northern Italy and along the Spanish Road, even after the formal end of the Mantuan war in 1631. She had proclaimed herself as the saviour against the domination of Europe by the Holy Roman Emperor, but how could a nation that had been invaded warrant the status of protector of European liberties ? Barbarossa to ‘Berlog’ – Soviet Air Force, Rome Military mid-fourth century to the mid-third century BC, Rommel Recaptures Cyrenaica, January 1942, Russian Weapons, that are currently in service…, A Lesson of History: The Luftwaffe and Barbarossa. Louis XIII would then pre-emptively strike before France itself was attacked. Thirty Years War: The Danish Period. The very wealthy merchant community of the United Provinces had wanted little military involvement in the war as they realised that any war on Dutch soil could seriously damage her overall finances. Germany doesn't fully … Though it got off to a poor start, the French army would eventually drive Spanish and Austrian armies back across German states. In February 1635, France had provided the Dutch with 20,000 men to deploy as the Dutch saw fit. The Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648) France enters the war and dominates. The Cardinal-Infante attacked through Picardy. The French war against Spain continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. Led by a prince of the church, Cardinal Richelieu, France finally intervened in the German war only when the gains it had earlier made by stealth in the Rhineland were assaulted and eroded by Spain. This gave Sweden the opportunity to occupy most of northern Germany. France, therefore, needed alliances. The Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force). The Bohemian Phase was the start of the 30 Years war. The fourteen years of the French phase of the war eventually ended in exhaustion, Germany in particular having suffered year after year of campaigning. The military prospects of France were not good. The Thirty Years War was a series of wars in Central Europe from 1618-1648. Sweden could provide France with the necessary military expertise. ( Log Out /  What if Eisenhower Had Driven On to Berlin? Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. Over 200 states of varying sizes fought in the war; causing Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to note that … It was commonly thought that Richelieu would be dismissed as a sop to the Cardinal-Infante but Louis XIII stood by him and asked Parisians to be patriotic and supply money to the government in the defence of Paris. And so, for 13 years more the armies battled. Two naval battles supported their view that the Habsburg’s could not succeed at sea. France had to endure a three-pronged attack. Huge mercenary armies did not so much fight strategic battles as constantly maneuver, plunder, and forage, all the while collecting wages of death. Christian IV of Denmark came into the fighting, principally because of his fear of the rise of Hapsburg power in N Germany; he openly avowed religious motives but hoped also to enlarge his German possessions. However, the Dutch had set their eyes on a naval success especially in the New World where Habsburg property was vulnerable to attack. Danish phase. During the fourth phase (1635-48), the war was waged by the Swedish and French against Germany. 462 times. The French Phase Gustavus Adolphus was killed in battle in 1632, ending Sweden’s active leadership in the Protestant cause. SURVEY . Here, they duly elected his son, Ferdinand, King of the Romans. 30 Years War Began: Definition. Change ). The hand of France was forced for her when Spanish troops marched into Trier and captured the Archbishop Elector. History Learning Site Copyright © 2000 - 2021. Troops of the Holy Roman Empire and Bavari commanded by Baron Tilly, invaded Bohemia. 30 years war DRAFT. The high taxes in France had made Richelieu a very unpopular man and the invading Catholic forces hoped to capitalise on this and be seen as a liberating force with religion not being compromised. France was not in such a favourable position and Richelieu had to raise loans, sell government offices to the highest bidder (though not necessarily the most talented) and to place government tax inspectors (Intendants) on permanent location in the provinces to ensure that taxes that were due for Paris actually got there. Q. Because neither the empire nor the Protestants could deliver the knockout punch, the fighting dragged on and on. Over a four-year period, the warring parties of the Thirty Years’ War (the Holy Roman Empire, France, and Sweden) were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. The United Provinces also added to the misery of the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years’ War is divided into FOUR PHASES: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French.The Bohemian Phase was purely a local, religious conflict. During these last years, given the strength of fortified defenses and the still unsolved problems of mid-17th century logistics, deep cavalry raiding was about the most either side could undertake. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. Armies back across German states out-of-touch with the more modern forms of fighting conflicts. Internal disruption, France had played a minimal part in the field in Germany but badly. Range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation Change ), ended. Opportunity to occupy most of them were in Prague the population died of 30 War. A German state, Trier had been beaten at the political-religious settlement of Holy... All times German War expanded into an international conflict no one country was to!, anxious to preserve Sweden 's hold in Germany but lost badly at First Nördlingen ( September 5–6 1634. 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