Those terracotta temples can be classified according to their architectural differences of roof styles. Architectural features of the temples of Bengal: Double roofed or dochala, four roofed (chauchala). > 1. The most common type of temple is the Atchala, where the Chaarchala roof, has a pyramidal four slope-roofed (like a Chaarchala roof), mini monument on top of it, like a Rotno,  which will be talked about later. Built by the Malla dynasty in the 17th century, this rustic terracotta temple complex, devoted to Lord Vishnu, mirrors the thatched architecture of rural Bengal. The cylindrical rotno have a spike at the top for embellishment, and are immensely decorated with miniature sculptures, like every other historical temple. This is a classic Noborotno Temple.Image Courtesy/Source: kinjalbose.wordpress.com, 1. Temple Architecture. Part of NCERT Art & Culture notes for UPSC 2021. Also noteworthy is the prominent existence and prevalence of Krishna Temples, which direct us to the realisation of the widespread Krishna-Bhakti practised in Bengal, especially during the medieval times (although it was ancient in origin) plausibly due to the influence of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s teachings.Image Source/Courtesy: famousplacesinindia.in. Initially, there were flat-top temples, square temples on low platforms. Hakanda temple at Maynapur, Bankura district, built in the 18th century and badly damaged. Nagara … The Chalukyan art took birth at Aihole and developed in Badami and Pattadkallu. Two such huts, one forming a porch in front and the other being the shrine at the back constitutes the jor-bangla – “Bengal's most distinctive contribution to temple design”. My India My Glory does not assume any responsibility for the validity or information shared in this article by the author. [1][2], In West Bengal, the hut roof generally has four sides and the char-chala temple is built on this model. Rotno Mondirs are again a classic architectural type of temples in Bengal. Important Characteristic Features of Chalukyan Architecture. The deity is placed in the garbhagriha, over which the sikhara rises.[4]. Virhambir built the Ras-Manch in 1587 AD. The stupendous forts, the intricately carved temples and the grand havelis of the state are integral parts of the architectural heritage of the state. All the images/idols of the gods of Bishnupur temple were congregated in the Ras-Manch during the annual Ras festival. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. In the comparatively more complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line or a point. Dec 30,2020 - What are the important architectural features of the temples of bengal? The architecture of Bishnupur is inspired by a coalescence of styles and cultures from surrounding regions. The structure of the temple is marked by vertical offset projections called rathas (on plan) and pagas (on elevation). Answer: Bengal witnessed a temple-building spree from the late fifteenth century, which culminated in the nineteenth century. 45. Chala temple. Islam 46. What are the Important architectural features of the temples of Bengal? Every temple of Bangladesh in not only a document of architectural art, but also a witness to Bengali aspirations-refected in their varied styles of construction. The Char bangla temple stands on a 1.5 feet high base, with its four temples showing two roofed Bengal chala (do chala), thus giving it the name of Char bangla, a unique style not seen elsewhere. The Krishna-Raya Atchala Mondir at Kachrapara. Hoysala Style of Temple Architecture. Think of a Char … Muslim domed temples are very rare, except possibly in Cooch Behar. Groups of four, six and twelve Shiva temples are quite popular. There are mainly four stages of architectural evolution in Bengal. It has two major types in Bengal: the Rekha Deul and the Pidha Deul, with the Rekha Deul being the primary, moorti hosting, cylindrical structure, and the Pidha Deul being the shorter, smaller, square-based, and pyramidal or triangular-topped temple, which generally lies in front of the Rekha Deul. [1], “Between the earlier and later Hindu periods astonishing religious changes took place in Bengal: the worship of Vishnu gave way to that of Radha-Krishna, of Chamunda to that of Kali; Surya fell entirely out of favour; curious folk cults like that of Dharmaraja or Dakshina Raya arose.” There have also been changes in temple architecture. Thye important architectural features of the temples in Bengal were the double-roof (dochala) and the four-roof (chauchala). The Chala comes in a few variants, like the Douchala, Chaarchala, Atchala and Barochala, with each having 2, 4, 8 and 12 sloping roofs respectively. Model Answer : Temple architecture provides a narrative of the history and… The dilapidated temples built by the Bhanja rulers at the ancient site of Khiching in Mayurbhanj provide a connecting link between Orissan architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries and its provincial phase in the south of West Bengal. The char-chala temples started coming up around the 17th century. It consists of nine spires distributed in two levels. Christian Illegal Cemetery Close to Uchistha Ganpaty Temple. Yes, that is an Atchala Mondir. These two features are further similar to the North-Indian Shikhar, a conical or cylindrical (tapered towards the end) monument which is constructed as the main area of the temple, which, as mentioned earlier, is the Garbhagriha. This type of temple can be seen actually almost everywhere in Bengal. To a North-Indian growing up in Bengal, there was a greater sense of belonging towards those adorably spherical Mondirs, than towards those uprightly, conical Mandirs, with great beauty residing in both. A Dalan Chandni Temple inside the Kaviraj Bari in Bardhaman. Hindu Temple Architecture in Bengal: A Glimpse into the Past. Remember those drawing classes? The temple bears some political epochs like the Mughal conquest of Bengal, march-past of Akbar’s soldiers under Manshing’s leadership. The magnificent Sonarong Moth temples in Bangladesh.Image Source/Courtesy: m.telegraphindia.com. Now, whether the Deul came first or the Deula, is a matter of debate, which I’m not going into, lest we want another Bengal-Orissa patent fight. Basically, Nagara Style of Architecture is North-India Temple Style. The Terracotta Temples of Bengal, famous for the use of Terracotta Plaques for surface decoration, had developed a unique style of architecture, quite distinct from the major styles of temple architecture that was prevailing in India. But, as soon as Brahmanas gave recognition to these local deities, temples were built for them. The Terracotta Temples of Bengal, famous for the use of Terracotta Plaques for surface decoration, had developed a unique style of architecture, quite distinct from the major styles of temple architecture that was prevailing in India. The ek-bangla or do-chala consists of a hut with two sloping roofs, following the pattern of huts, mostly in East Bengal villages. Jagannath Temple of Mahesh. Photograph by Joseph David Beglar in 1897. Since I was a child, I was always fascinated by the conspicuous shape and structure of the magnanimously constructed temples of Bengal. The pyramid like structure of the Ras-Manch is the only of its kind in Bengal. Features of Dravidian Style. Three major developments in religious architecture were seen in three different eras of Bengal’s history – evolution of Nagara style temples which were influenced by the Orissan Rekha deuls, followed by the developments of Islamic Architecture through mosques and tombs, and lastly, the generation of Terracotta Temples. In the smooth type, the sikhara is free of horizotal bars and in ridged type, it is closely ridged with bars. The Temple structure of Dakshineswar was built in a typical Nava- Ratna Bengal Architectural style. Temples in Bengal; Pirs; Migration of People: Sixteenth century onwards, people began to migrate from the less fertile western Bengal to the forested and marshy areas of south-eastern Bengal. This beautiful land that I call home. Four-roofed structure, on the four walls :In the comparatively more complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line or a point. The base is normally square in Hindu temple architecture. The roofing style of Bengali Hindu temple architecture is unique and closely related to the paddy roofed traditional building style of rural Bengal. Built on a square platform. of Chala temples of Bengal, the temple is really attractive being designed fully of the ornamentation of terracotta plaques. One of the other names of the Dalan is the Chandni (চাঁদনী), which again has decorative carvings in various parts of its structure, and is just one block of monument. Tarapith Temple. As they moved eastwards, they cleared the forests and started practicing agriculture there. Features of Temples in Bengal are as follows : Explanation: Temples as well as other religious constructions have often been constructed by groups or individuals who have been becoming powerful, to illustrate their power and proclaim their piety.. The architecture of Bengal, consists of the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, has a long and rich history, blending with native features with influences from different parts of the world. Important architectural features of the temples of Bengal are: Temples began to copy the double-roofed or four-roofed structure of the thatched huts. In the Dravidian Style of architecture, the chief shrine of the temple as in the Nagara Style had the chief deity. During the following two centuries a distinctive Bengali culture took shape.”[1], The temples of the pre-Muslim period have nearly all disappeared and from the few that are there the predominant is the tall curvilinear rekha deul, akin to the Odishan style. The flat-roofed (dalan) temples “with their heavy cornices on S-curved brackets they too have a long Indo-Islamic place and temple tradition” and then was influenced by European ideas in the 19th century. The temple is facing towards the south and there is an alternative door in the north. It is evident that the Pallava Rulers started building temples in Southen India but the Dravidian Style flourished during the rule of Cholas.. Another extremely interesting structure is the Deul, which has captivating origins. Barakar temples at Barakar in Paschim Bardhaman district. Bishnupur Temple – Krishna Ponchorotno Mondir, built by the king aforementioned, Raja Raghunath Singh. This temple structure is probably the oldest out of all Bengali Hindu temples. ⭐In the comparatively more complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a … Note that the intricate carvings in Bengali Temples (the historical kind) were often made of terracotta, due to the easy availability of clay near river banks. •In the 13TH century Arabs invaded the Bengal province and introduced their architecture for the first time in this region. It was easier to build. of this temple features with temple architectural features developed in Bangladesh. The assembly hall is called jagamohan, through which the devotees reach the main temple. Chitralekha representing our indigenous culture. Describe the style of temples in bengal Get the answers you need, now! BENGAL PROVINCIAL ARCHITECTURE •Bengal was established in 1203-1573 AD. Image courtesy/source: Wikimedia. Located in West Bengal, Bishnupur is a village which is rich in terms of temple architecture and has been documented extensively by historians, architects as well as archeologists. Ancient Indian temples are classified in three broad types. These temples have a main cylindrical tower, called the Rotno, which is surrounded on four sides by subsidiary towers, also cylindrical. Most temples surviving in reasonable condition date from about the 17th century onwards, after temple building revived; it had stopped after the Muslim conquest in the 13th century. Comprised of marvellously tall, sharply conical spires, they surely remind of the those grim Gothic Churches of Western Europe, and the fact that these Moths were constructed sometime around the 18th-19th Century, Euro-Brirish influence is plausible. In this background, Percy Brown has called their architecture as “cradle of Indian temple architecture.” Badami, Ailhole and Pattadakal were the centers of their art. Stone deul at Ambikanagar, Bankura district, was originally a Jain temple some 800-900 years old. Point out one by one the key features of temple architecture in these areas i.e. Temple architecture of Bengalby Sibabrata Halder and Manju Halder is an interdisciplinary attempt at understanding various forms of architecture that came into being out of various cultural matrices right from the 5thto the 19thcentury AD. Read the Full article to know about Temple Architecture in India. It was first adopted in Muslim architecture, a prominent example being the Maosoleum of Fateh Khan at Gauda. The area that is occupied by the main temple is 14 meters square. This graphic representation will surely help you to understand the various forms and types of Bengal Temple. [1], “Ratna style temples are the composite type of architecture… The lower part of the temple has all the features of the curved cornices and a short pointed spire crowns the roof and this will be adorned with the introduction of ratnas or kiosks.”[3], Ek-ratna Ramchandraji temple at Guptipara, Hooghly district, Ek-ratna temple at Radhakantapur, Paschim Medinipur district, Pancha-ratna Shyam Rai temple at Bishnupur, Bankura district, Nava-ratna Radha Binode temple at Jaydev Kenduli, Birbhum district, With 13 minars Hangseshwari temple has a distinct identity, at Bansberia, Hooghly district, Saptadasa-ratna Parvatinatha Temple at Chandrakona, Paschim Medinipur district with 17 pinnacles, Panchavimsati-ratna Gopalbari temple at Kalna City, Purba Bardhaman district, with 25 pinnacles, Panchavimsati-ratna rasmancha at Narajole, Paschim Medinipur district, with 25 pinnacles. The Temples of Bishnupur. Located in West Bengal, Bishnupur is a village which is rich in terms of temple architecture and has been documented extensively by historians, architects as well as archeologists. • Neoclassical and Italianate urban and country houses influenced temple architecture later in Colonial period. The structure reflects typical Bengal architectural form with ‘Nava-Ratna’ style or nine spires evenly distributed on each corner and the centre of the upper-storey. The crowning amalaka is generally large and flat. The buildings are the kind one would quite often see in those big North-Calcuttan Baris, with one-floor monuments strewn with several pillars towards their edge. • Brick thus lends Bengal architecture a style which is distinct, with its pointed arches and finishes so different from those in stone. Divyanshi Sharda is a humanities student from Kolkata who bears a keen interest in researching and analysing the various aspects of Indian Culture, History and Hinduism. The unique feature about Rotno Mondirs is that, they bear uncanny resemblance to medieval European Castles, although being completely unrelated to them as most of these types of temples were built before the European arrival. It is marked by the presence of a convex-sloping roof. The panel features some notable scenes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, a grand court, performances of the musicians and glimpses of regular life. Throughout Bengal, temples were established to hold the Brahmanas of local gods.. The Dol Moncho near the Damodar Mondir in Rautara. Rasmancha is located around 27km from Bishnupur and it is one of the unique temples to visit in West Bengal. The Krishno Chondro Temple at Kalna. The temple has a pyramidal structure and terracotta has been used in the carvings. Saileswar and Shanreswar temples at Dihar, Bankura district, are old Shiva temples, damaged by erosion and possibly restored in the 14th century. 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